FishyBiz Projects

West African fishing agreements | Control of fishing in West Africa | Control of fishing in Southern Africa

Estonia and EU accession | Return to Fishy Links

Assessing the Impact of Foreign Fishing Agreements in West Africa

based on the work of

M. K. Kelleher

FAO Fisheries Consultant






    This study is divided in three parts. The first part describes the studies which have already been made and which are of relevance to the fishing agreements and their role in the development of industrial fishing in West Africa. The sources of information of relevance to an assessment of the impact of the fishing agreements on the fish stocks, the fisheries and the economies of the coastal states are noted. Some empirical data is presented in the Annex in order to provide an indication of the orders of magnitude of the foreign and coastal state fishing industries.

    The second part of the study concentrates on the agreements made in the SRFC countries, namely: Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania and Senegal. The agreements made are tabulated and the distant water fishing nation (DWFN) catches and catch values are estimated. The principal costs and benefits of the agreements are noted, and valued where possible. The values are presented in tabular form (in the Annex, Table 18) and are supported with commentary and interpretation. Further notes of relevance to the agreements are presented on a country-by-country basis.

    The objectives of the study have been only partly achieved. In the third part of the study some conclusions are presented. Further questions are identified which may profitably be addressed and empirically assessed. Caution is advised regarding any further interpretation of the data provided. A short bibliography is given.



    Feasibility Study for SADC Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Marine Fishing Activities

    prepared by

    European Bureau for Conservation and Development/ GOPA Consultants

    under EC Project No. 7.ACP RPR.484

    October 1996 version


    Table of contents

    1. Summary
    1.1 Conclusions
    1.2 Recommendations
    1.3 The proposed SADC regional MCS programme
    2. Background
    2.1 Regional marine fisheries policy
    2.2 Features of the fisheries sector
    2.3 Beneficiaries and parties involved
    2.4 Problems to be addressed
    2.5 Existing plans and interventions
    2.6 Documentation and available information
    3. Intervention
    3.1 Overall objective
    3.2 Programme purpose
    3.3 Results
    3.3.1 National MCS capacity improved
    3.3.2 A basis for the management of shared stocks created
    3.3.3 Approaches to the control of international fishing activities harmonised
    3.3.4 Marine environment protected
    3.3.5 Regional cooperation, communication and training enhanced at a regional level
    3.3.6 Programme coordinated and managed
    3.4 Activities
    3.4.1 Strengthening of national MCS capacity
    3.4.2 Bilateral initiatives on shared stocks
    3.4.3 Management of international fisheries
    3.4.4 Regional cooperation and training
    3.4.5 Protection of the marine environment
    3.4.6 Programme management
    4. Assumptions
    4.1 Assumptions at different levels
    4.2 Risks and flexibility
    5. Implementation
    5.1 Physical and non-physical means
    5.2 Organisation and implementation procedures
    5.2.1 Regional coordination
    5.2.2 Implementation at national level
    5.2.3 Associated organisations
    5.3 Timetable
    5.4 Cost estimates and financing plan
    5.5 Special conditions and accompanying measures taken by Government
    6. Factors ensuring sustainability
    6.1 Policy support measures
    6.2 Appropriate technology
    6.3 Environmental protection
    6.4 Socio-cultural and gender aspects
    6.5 Institutional and management capacity
    6.6 Economic and financial analysis
    7. Monitoring and Evaluation
    7.1 Monitoring indicators
    7.2 Review evaluation and reporting
    8. Conclusions and proposals
    8.1 Conclusions
    8.2 Recommendations
    8.3 Summary description of the proposed SADC Regional MCS Programme
    8.4 Problem tree
    8.5 Objectives tree
    8.6 SADC Regional Fisheries MCS Programme: Logical Framework Matrix
    8.7 Details of Physical means
    8.8 Details of costs
    8.9 Timetable
The proposed SADC regional MCS programme

The overall objective of the programme is the improved management of marine fisheries resources.

The purposes of the programme are to improve national capacity for efficient, cost-effective and sustainable MCS, and to establish and enhance effective regional cooperation on MCS and fisheries management.

The primary focus of the programme will be on the development and strengthening of national MCS capacity, in particular through the training of fisheries inspectors and senior MCS management staff, and the establishment efficient and cost effective MCS systems. Programme components will include: training and development of effective MCS systems; both long-term and short-term technical assistance; cost control and monitoring of MCS effectiveness; attention to the question of the control of small-scale fisheries; and improvement in marine environmental protection.

The second objective of the programme is the development of the SADC marine fisheries ‘community’. This will be achieved through support for regional workshops with a view to enhanced control of shared stocks and international fisheries; improved regional communication on fisheries matters; attention to marine environmental problems; support for regional training; and programme coordination and management.

At a regional level the programme will be implemented through the Namibia-based SADC Sector Coordinator, to whom the appointed programme manager will be responsible. In each coastal Member State the relevant fisheries authorities will be responsible for the programme and will be represented on the Programme Management Committee. The Chairman of the Programme Management Committee will be the SADC Marine Fisheries Sector Coordinator. Financial transactions will be routed through the coastal Member State’s fisheries development fund, or an equivalent financial scheme, which receives and disburses revenues obtained through licence payments, levies, or royalties from the fisheries sector. Implementation and success of the programme will be monitored through reporting on specific programme targets. Mid-term and final programme evaluations will take place.

The total value of the direct EU intervention for the coastal Member States is 9.4 million ECU. These funds would be made available as part of the country’s national indicative programme under Lomé.

The value of the additional regional funds provided by the EU, and from which the participating States may benefit is 3.5 million ECU. These funds will support the costs of the Programme Management Unit and technical assistance, regional workshops, and regional training available to the participating States in accordance with the annual programme implementation plan approved by the Programme Management Committee and endorsed by the SADC marine fisheries ministers. The total EU contribution is 12.9 million ECU.

The estimated value of the counterpart contributions is 2.5 million ECU. This estimate represents the standardised costs of existing national MCS activities projected for the life of the programme, and such other logistic and office support which may be required of the coastal Member States for programme execution.

The total estimated cost of the 5-year programme is 15.3 million ECU, including the projected cost of the counterpart contributions.

An accurate cost-benefit assessment of the proposed programme is not possible without numerous assumptions at the national and regional level. A conservative estimate of proposed programme’s internal rate of return (IRR) is 15% over 10 years.





(West Africa)

Lux Development / FAO - Regional aerial surveillance of fishing zones (AFR/010)
Improvement of the legal framework for fisheries cooperation, management and development of coastal states in West Africa (GCP/RAF/302/EEC)


Project Title:
Effective and sustainable regional cooperation in fisheries control and surveillance
Government of Luxembourg
Implementing Agency
Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission
Cooperating agency:
Lux Development
Four (4) years
Estimated starting date:
July 1998

Brief description:

The purpose of the project is to reduce illegal fishing in order to improve fish food security and economic benefits to seven coastal States in West Africa.

The project will transfer the institutional developments, technologies, and advances made under the existing regional surveillance project (AFR/010) to the sub-regional institutions in a manner which will promote effective and sustainable use of national fisheries control capabilities through cooperation, through planning, and through harmonised legal and administrative approaches.

The project will fund joint surveillance operations, provide technical assistance and backup, provide training, and assist in the member States in the financial and technical planning of fisheries control.

Table of contents



A.1 The Fisheries sector
A.2 Existing sub-regional institutional framework
A.3 National management and control of the fisheries of the sub-region
A.4 The current SRFC/ Lux Development project - AFR/010


B.1 The problem
B.2 Key weaknesses and constraints
B.3 Strengths and oportunities
B.4 Threats and weaknesses



D.1 Strategic objectives
D.2 Results
D.3 activities
E.1 The roles of the parties
E.2 The Agreements
E.3 Project coordination and management
E.4 Personnel
E.5 Timescale 


I.1 Finanacial arrangements
I.2 Cost estimates 


J.1 Annex 1. Work plan, Budget, and Logical framework
J.2 Annex 2. Project preparation Mission: Terms of reference, Itinerary and Contacts.
J.3 Annex 3. Draft decisions for consideration by SRFC Council of Ministers
J.4 Annex 4. Technical background and project justification


1. Introduction

This draft project document was prepared as a result of a joint Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission/ Lux Development / FAO mission to Cape Verde, Gambia, Guiné, Guiné Bissau, Mauritania and Senegal. The mission obtained a consensus on the broad principles of the project from the individual fisheries Ministers of all six member States. Provision is made for the inclusion of Sierra Leone in the project activities, although due to the current security situation the participation of Sierra Leone remains unclear.

The purposes of this document are:

2. Achievements and lessons of the current project (AFR/0190)

The project will be a continuation of an existing Luxembourg-financed project on aerial surveillance of industrial fishing activities in West Africa, but with several important differences. Evaluation of the current project has shown that it has succeeded in establishing the technical feasibility of aerial surveillance using sub-regional means, defined the cost of such operations, helped determine the extent of illegal fishing activities, trained local personnel, helped establish effective communication between national fisheries control authorities, and compiled valuable statistical information on vessel movements and infractions.

However, aerial surveillance requires corresponding seagoing patrols and improved legal instruments to be effective in dealing with the problem of illegal fishing. Sustainable sub-regional fisheries control activities require the establishment of a formal institutional framework and financial arrangements to replace a donor-funded project.

3. Description of the project

The objective of the project is to reduce the incidence of illegal industrial fishing activities in the sub-region. The means and strategies used are of fundamental importance. It is proposed that the project: assist in the establishment of a sub-regional Surveillance Coordinating Unit (SCU) under the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC); focus on means to generate sub-regional funds to promote sustainable cooperative activities; and on means to render surveillance more efficient and cost effective. The direct beneficiary of the project will be the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission, and in particular the Surveillance Coordinating Unit. The member States will be indirect beneficiaries, in particular the States of the ‘southern group’ - Guiné, Guiné Bissau and Sierra Leone as the incidence and impact of illegal fishing is considerably higher in the waters of these States.

The project will have five main results:

The activities undertaken will include:

The total cost of the project is estimated to be approximately 5 million US$ over a period of four years, of which approximately 2 million US$ (40%) will be spent on surveillance patrols with a concentration of effort on the southern group of countries (Guinea Bissau, Guinea and Sierra Leone). The estimated cost of the counterpart contribution by the SRFC is approximately 260,000 US$. The counterpart funding will increase annually as the donor finance declines.

The Project Manager will be the head of the Surveillance Coordinating Unit of the SRFC. The project will be executed on behalf of the Government of Luxembourg by the FAO and Lux Development. The project will be coordinated by a Project Steering Committee comprising representatives of the beneficiary, the donor, and the executing agencies.

Through a Multi-Bi trust fund agreement FAO will provide international personnel to the SRFC (Dakar) and the SCU (Banjul), will provide consultancy services and organise workshops and training. Lux Development, on behalf of the Government of Luxembourg, will direct to the SRFC/ SCU the funds required for aerial and marine surveillance patrols and for the associated activities and requirements of the SCU. Lux Development will assist the SCU to control and monitor the use of the operational budget.

Because of the number of organisations and States involved, the achievements of the project will be reviewed annually and adjustments to the budgets and work plan made in accordance with the changing needs of the sub-region and the fisheries. An independent evaluation will be undertaken prior to the end of year 4.

4. Decisions required by the SRFC

In order to effectively implement the project the Council of Ministers of the SRFC will need to decide on the general principles to be used in solving the following issues:

  • the establishment of the Surveillance Coordination Unit, its staffing and financing;
  • the approaches to long-term sustainable financing of sub-regional projects and activities;
  • the need to authorise named sub-regional aerial surveillance observers of different sub-regional nationalities (also known as Chief of Aerial Surveillance Mission) to prepare infraction reports which are legally valid for the purposes of prosecution in member States of which they are non-nationals; and
  • approval of the project document.
  •  5. Agreements required between the parties

    The following agreements between the parties will be necessary in order to initiate the project:

    The following agreements between the parties will be needed for effective project operations and can be prepared during the start-up of the project:

    It should be noted that Sierra Leone, which has observer status in the SRFC, is included in the project. However, the project preparation mission was unable to visit Sierra Leone due to the current security situation. Throughout the project document the beneficiaries are referred to as the SRFC member States, although the intent is to include Sierra Leone. A further agreement between the SRFC and Sierra Leone may be necessary to implement certain project activities.

    6. Procedures and timetable

    In early December 1997, the draft project document will be submitted to the FAO and Lux Development (acting on behalf of the Government of Luxembourg). Following technical review by both agencies, and assuming agreement in principle with the project philosophy, main components, and costs, the draft project document will be forwarded to the Secretariat of the SRFC for distribution to the member States.

    The Secretariat is currently making arrangements for a special meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the SRFC to review the project and advise the meeting of the SRFC Council of Ministers scheduled for February 1998. Decisions of the Council of Ministers are required to implement the project.



    Preparing Estonia’s fisheries sector for EU accession

    compiled by

    Kieran Kelleher,
    Team Leader, Megapesca Lda.
    and drawing on contributions from
    John Wallace, Informatic Management International, Ltd.
    Cormac Cullinan, Enact International Ltd.

    May 1998

    PHARE PROJECT No. 97-5009.00 : Development of more effective fisheries management of fisheries resources and compliance with EU legislation


    This is a working document designed to help the Estonian fisheries authorities in the planning and development of the sector for eventual EU accession and in addressing issues related to the accession process. The general philosophy of the presentation is to try to achieve a balance between:

    This report is designed as a reference text, or dossier, rather than a definitive report. Both the CFP and the Estonian fisheries sector and its institutions are in a process of change and adaptation. As such the dossier’s use and validity has a limited lifespan.

    The document can be considered as a framework which seeks to integrate aspects of Estonian fisheries policy, fisheries planning requirements, and priority issues for Estonia’s accession process.

    The dossier may be progressively completed and modified by Estonian counterpart staff following the termination of this Phare project. In final form of the document may be envisaged as the dossier used as a basis, or working draft of the negotiating brief for the fisheries component of the EU acquis exam.

    The different sections of the dossier present:

    Further sections explore the various components of the CFP. The Annexes provide further details on legislative and statistical data requirements, and commentary on a new Phare fisheries project approved for Estonia.

    As the CFP is a multi-faceted policy instrument, its effective implementation requires the close coordination between several Estonian institutions, including the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, (marine) Transport, and Economics and Trade; the industry associations and fora, and the County Administrations. The dossier identifies the areas in which this co-ordination is required and provides some options for its development in the context of the EU accession process.

    The document is an output of the Phare fisheries project, which has had a restricted brief in relation to the multiple dimensions of the EU accession process.


    The dossier addresses three tasks:

    The analysis concludes that Estonian authorities must balance the use of the scarce manpower and resources between:

    It is strongly suggested that building an effective Estonian management system be the priority for several reasons:

    The basic framework for the dossier is the Common Fisheries Policy and its legislative instruments. Three main components are addressed. These are:

    Additional components of the CFP, namely the external policy , research, and the environment are also examined.

    In relation to each policy element the dossier:

    The annexes provide additional supporting information on Estonian fisheries policy and on the Estonian statistical data system, on external assistance possibilities, and on Community legislation. A bibliography of Estonian and EU documentation is provided.

    Return to Fishy Links